The classic fundus appearance of RP includes retinal pigment epithelial cell changes resulting in retinal hypo- or hyperpigmentation (salt-and-pepper), retinal granularity, and bone spicule formation. The retinal vessels are often narrowed or attenuated and there is a waxy pallor appearance of the optic nerve head The parotid gland in Sjögren syndrome has also been described as having a salt and pepper appearance, due to a combination of punctate regions of calcification (pepper) and fatty replacement (salt Spotted hyper and hypofluorescence (salt and pepper fundus appearance) was seen in 72.7% of patients and blockage of choroidal fluorescence due to retinal pigment migration in 63.6%. The appearance frequencies of these signs were not statistically significant; nevertheless, they indicate the onset of the chorioretinal scarring process There is a faint speckled pigmentary retinopathy evident in the periphery—a light salt and pepper change Salt and pepper sign or pepper pot skull refers to multiple tiny well-defined lucencies in the calvaria caused by resorption of trabecular bone in hyperparathyroidism. There is a loss of definition between the inner and outer tables of the skull and a ground-glass appearance as well as spotty deossification
Retina abnormalities occur in some patients as early as infancy and include retinal pigment epithelium hypopigmentation, appearing as a salt and pepper type fundus which may result in an abnormal visual field (11). Other organs affected include the thyroid, pancreas, muscle and central nervous system (10). 2 KSS results in a pigmentation of the retina, primarily in the posterior fundus.The appearance is described as a salt-and-pepper appearance. There is diffuse depigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium with the greatest effect occurring at the macula.This is in contrast to retinitis pigmentosa where the pigmentation is peripheral. The appearance of the retina in KSS is similar to that. fundus reflex See fundus reflex. salt and pepper fundus The appearance of the ocular fundus characterized by a stippling of dark pigmented spots and yellowish-red spots of atrophy, as is found in congenital syphilis, choroideremia, Leber's congenital amaurosis, rubeola, poliomyelitis, etc , neuroendocrine tumours and pheochromocytoma
The fundus abnormalities of Leber's congenital amaurosis are extremely variable, from normal to salt-and-pepper changes to typical retinitis pigmentosa. A less commonly seen appearance is that of multiple, irregular shaped, yellowish white flecks deep in the midperipheral retina in a periarteriolar distribution pigmentation and a salt and pepper appearance (Figure 7). Funduscopic exam of the left eye appeared unchanged despite the significant improvement in vision. At this point the cyclosporin and azathioprine were continued, and the prednisone was reduced to 40 mg daily The 'pepper' represents multiple areas of signal void of vessels and the 'salt' represents the hyperintense foci due to slow-flow vessels or hemorrhages in these hypervascular tumors. The sign is seen in tumors that are more than 1 cm in diameter. The sign is not specific for paragangliomas and has been reported in other hypervascular lesions. the right fundus showed definite swelling of the disk with blurred margins and distended veins. Several small linear hemorrhages were seen coming off the disk, and the retinal arteries were slightly narrowed. The disk and vessels of the left eye were normal in appearance and showed none of the features of papillitis seen in thedisk of right eye
The region of retinal opacity with fluorescein leakage observed just after trauma exhibits later in the course a salt-and-pepper appearance that is accompanied by visual dysfunction and, therefore, is considered to be a lesion of severe injury.3, 4 In the present study, fluorescein leakage was found in nine eyes and a salt-and-pepper appearance. Start studying Uvea. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Retinal dystrophy in a Japanese boy harboring the mitochondrial DNA T8993G mutation. Yamada T, Hayasaka S, Hongo K, Kubota H Jpn J Ophthalmol 2002 Jul-Aug;46(4):460-2. doi: 10.1016/s0021-5155(02)00499-9
. 18 In the children we examined, the lesions were more visible at the posterior pole, where there were distributed along the paths of the major blood vessels
Cattle track appearance in fundoscopy is due to: Optic disc coloboma. Morning glory appearance. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion ( CRAO ). Cattle track appearance. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion ( CRVO ). Blood and thunder appearance. Chloroquine toxicity. Bulls eye maculopathy Ddx Salt and Pepper Fundus (6) Rubella Lebers Congenital Amaurosis Ddx See-Saw Nystagmus (3) Craniopharyngioma Parasellar tumor Trauma Ddx Variable Appearance of Orbital Tumors (4) Rhabdomyosarcoma Metastasis Lymphoproliferative disorders Adenoid cystic carcinoma. In fact, the physical examination is considered to be the pivotal part of the diagnostic workup, as both physical and ophthalmoscopy findings (a myriad of fundus abnormalities is seen, such as the salt-and-pepper appearance of the retina) are highly indicative of LCA
1) Hyperparathyroidism, 2) Multiple myeloma, 3) Hyperthyroidism, 4) Pseudo hyperparathyroidism, 5) NUL A salt-and-pepper appearance of the skin is just one of many changes observed in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. 5 It is one of the earliest cutaneous findings in systemic sclerosis. 6 Occasionally, it may be the sole cutaneous manifestation. 5. Below, we present a case of systemic sclerosis diagnosed five years from the first.
Cayenne pepper spots: Irregular plaques of orange or brown pigmentation due to hemosiderin appearing with in and at the edges of old lesions. Seen in progressive pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Champagne bottle leg: Progressive subcutaneous fibrosis following chronic lipodermatosclerosis gives the leg an inverted bottle leg shape . A bacterial infection can also cause retinal inflammation. Syphilis. This is caused by Treponema pallidum. 17 While ocular complications are uncommon, panuveitis is the most usual finding when they do occur. 17,18 Others include interstitial keratitis, anterior and intermediate uveitis, scleritis, vasculitis, chorioretinitis, serous RDs, optic neuritis and optic nerve gumma. A: Typically, rubella causes a retinitis (inflammation of the retina) with a salt-and-pepper appearance in the retina, which represents a mottling of the retinal pigment epithelium (pigmented layer below the retina). This condition may not affect vision at all Dr Bhatia Medical Coaching Institute Pvt Ltd. April 15, 2013 ·. Salt and pepper pot appearance of skull is seen in? (A) Hyperparathyroidism. (B) Multiple myeloma. (C) Hyperthyroidism. (D) Pseudo hyperparathyroidism
Figure 2. Color fundus photo of the right eye demonstrating peripapillary atrophy and vascular attenuation. Figure 3. Color fundus photo of the left eye demonstrating peripapillary atrophy, vascular attenuation and salt-and-pepper pigmentary changes. Figure 4. Representative fundus photo of pigmentary changes seen in the periphery of both eyes Diffuse granular pigmentation was noted in the mid and far periphery with stippled hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation suggestive of salt-and-pepper retinopathy ().On careful examination, a retinal detachment (RD) was noted in the peripapillary area ().Subretinal gliosis was also noted in few areas, with subretinal band in the superotemporal quadrant and around the disc (figure 1C,D) The severity of the fundus appearance was graded at each patient's first visit according to the system proposed by Yuzawa and coauthors called a salt and pepper appearance. Some reports have suggested centrifugal expansion of the visual defect based on the central scotoma seen with the 30° visual field test [1, 19, 27] In the skull, there is diffuse bone thickening with loss of distinction between the inner and outer tables, and granular de-ossification of the skull due to lytic foci interspersed within normal bone, giving the appearance of salt and pepper or pepper pot skull (Fig. 22) [55,56,57] • Early in the disease course, retinal findings in the midperiphery can have a salt and pepper appearance or be similar to early retinitis pigmentosa with bone spicule pigmentation • Choroidal atrophy starts at the equator and spreads both peripherally and centrally • Atrophy of choroidal vessel
ACO2 ( #100850) Function of gene/protein. Protein: Mitochondrial aconitase. Functions as a catalytic enzyme in the Krebs cycle. Clinical phenotype. (OMIM phenotype no.) Optic atrophy 9, OPA9 ( #616289) Infantile cerebellar retinal degeneration, ICRD ( #614559) Inheritance retinal pigment epithelium clumping and subret-inal deposits, sometimes giving an appearance of pseudoretinitis pigmentosa or salt-and-pepper reti-nopathy.4 5 Other causes such as congenital rubella, congenital syphilis, intraocular foreign body and drug toxicity should be ruled out in cases of pigmen The disk appears severely pale, retinal vessels are extremely attenuated, the retinal tissue is thinned and has a salt-and-pepper appearance, and the macular region is remarkable for a coloboma. RETINAL APLASIA crude pigment irregularly scattered over the fundi and definitel1 not of the bone-corpuscle type. The disk itself is ill defined in the surrounding atrophic retina, and the vessels are markedly narrowed. A striking feature is the essential symmetry in appearance of the two fundi. Case 4.-Mrs. Daisy L. (1I, 8), aged 30, an aunt of the affected children
. 2 With CT, vertebral body hemangiomas have low attenuation interspersed with thickened bony trabeculae, causing a characteristic salt and pepper or polka dot. Fundus picture showing the classical cracked mud appearance in progressive outer retinal necrosis. Syphilis is called the great imitator as it can present as chorioretinitis, neuroretinitis, salt-pepper retinopathy, optic neuritis, papilloedema, SFU is also seen in other inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions,. Optic fundus in clinical medicine. 2. Only place in the body where blood vessels can be visualized directly Mirror the status of the systemic circulation Continuity of nerve fibers and meninges Reflects specific changes in systemic diseases Contribute to diagnosis. 4. Ideally fundus should be examined in a darkened room Patient should be asked.
Salt-and-pepper fundus with diffuse pigmentary lesions can be the signature of a previous systemic infection that had ocular involvement. Examples include inactive chorioretinal scars secondary to Lyme disease, tuberculosis, syphilis, congenital rubella, toxoplasmosis and bartonellosis - Salt-and-pepper appearance to retina [UMLS: C4230063] - Attenuated vessels [UMLS: C3280047] - Loss of macular reflex progressing to bull's eye lesion [UMLS: C4230062] - Maculopathy [SNOMEDCT: 312999006, 422338006] [UMLS: C0730362, C0024437 HPO: HP:0000608] - Hammer-beaten appearance of peripheral fundus [UMLS: C4230061
of the retinal pigment epithelium and the carrier state of X-linked ocular albinism (see Figure )[ , ]. In the present study,rubellaretinopathywascon rmedbyaretinaspecialist to minimize errors in the clinical diagnosis. A similar study from Colombia examined institutionalized deaf people and identi ed salt and pepper retinopathy in .% whic Retinal vessels are attenuated. Fundus pigmentation is usually abnormal with some combination of bone spicule and diffuse salt and pepper pigmentation. The macula is usually involved with a flat fovea, cystoid macular edema, and chorioretinal atrophy. Retinal thinning is seen on OCT 28.2.1 Case Presentation. The patient is a 63-year-old, neurologically intact, woman with MRI of the lumbosacral (LS) spine performed for back pain ( Fig. 28.1).. Fig. 28.1 Midline sagittal T1-weighted (a) and fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted (b), fat-saturated images.. The marrow signal was originally interpreted as diffusely abnormal with concern for malignancy, which led to a referral. Infrared fundus photography (Optos, Inc.) showed a salt-and-pepper appearance surrounding the macula, bone-spicule retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) hyperplasia, paravenous RPE hyperplasia, and arteriolar attenuation OU (Figure 2A and B).Fundus autofluorescence showed macular autofluorescence with a surrounding granular hypoautofluorescence and an additional hyperautofluorescent zone OU.
Rubella retinopathy has a characteristic appearance but may mimic other salt and pepper retinopathies such as congenital syphilis, as well as other toxic or inherited diseases of the retinal pigment epithelium and the carrier state of X-linked ocular albinism (see Figure 1) [16, 22]. In the present study, rubella retinopathy was confirmed. BACKGROUND Long chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) is one of the enzymes involved in the breakdown of fatty acids. A deficiency of this enzyme is associated with life threatening episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycaemia during prolonged fasting. Neuropathy and retinopigmentary changes were mentioned in only a few cases. METHODS The case histories of two girls, aged 8 and 15 years. fundus oculi. Wikipedia. Medical Information Search. The fibrous tunic, also known as the tunica fibrosa oculi, is the outer layer of the eyeball consisting of the cornea andIf an ophthalmoscope is used, one can see the fundus, as well as vessels (which supply additional blood flow to the retina)The vascular tunic, also known as the tunica vasculosa oculi or the uvea, is the middle. Kearns-Sayre syndrome results from alterations in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA that disrupt oxidative phosphorylation, impairing ATP production in affected mitochondria. The manifestations vary depending on the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction and type of tissue affected. The dysfunction can occur by a number of mechanisms In LCA-5 family, both the affected siblings had normal disc, and mildly attenuated vessels. Yellowish atrophic patches were seen in the macular area in the younger sibling (10 yrs) , while the elder sibling (14yrs) had atrophic macula with black pigments . Both the siblings had salt and pepper fundus with bony spicules
drial myopathy, in which a granular (''salt and pepper'') retinopathy, often difficult to differentiate from normal variation, with little visual impairment is most common (fig 2).2 A ''bone spicule'' appearance associated with night blindness and visual field constriction, as typically seen in which may mimic the salt-and-pepper appearance of congenital rubella retinopathy. Visual acuity is not affected, and ERG is normal. Symptoms do not extend beyond mild photoaversion to bright light. Carriers of non-X-linked albinism rarely show fundus changes. Rod-Cone and Cone-Rod Disease: When Subtyping Fail Granular, or salt-and-pepper, appearance of the skull as a result of diffuse demineralization; rarely larger focal osteolytic lesions develop. Infection [ p. 785 ] Diffuse presentation of infection is uncommon; in general, infections of the skull are less common in the United States than in underdeveloped countries , and vit B12, increased methylmalonic acid
Most general practitioners and physicians are familiar with the risk factors, clinical presentation, and management of retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus, commonly termed diabetic retinopathy. Fewer doctors are fully informed about other ocular and systemic causes of retinopathy or the clinical significance of retinopathy in patients without diabetes (referred to as non-diabetic. The lacy appearance of the iliac crest is a feature also of Dyggve-Melchior-Claussen syndrome (223800), but Ehara et al. (1997) pointed out that the severe epiphyseal dysplasia of the proximal femurs and marked platyspondyly with particular double-hump appearance of the vertebral bodies seen in DMC syndrome were not present in their patients Sir, The term retinitis pigmentosa (RP) describes a group of hereditary retinal dystrophies, characterized by the early onset of night blindness and progressive loss of the visual field
Human Phenotype Ontology, a standardized vocabulary of phenotypic abnormalities encountered in human disease. With unmatched depth it enables clinicians to record and analyse data with extremely accurate computer interpretable ontology terms. Developed by The Monarch Initiative Xu et al. (2016) studied an Italian sister and brother with retinitis pigmentosa. The 78-year-old sister, who became aware of nyctalopia and vision problems at age 12 years, showed visual acuity of 20/80 in the right eye and light-perception only in the left eye, constricted visual fields, and peripapillary atrophy; funduscopy revealed bone spicule pigmentation and attenuated retinal vessels Traumatic retinopathy with retinal pigment epithelial hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and migration into the retina in a perivascular location, giving a spiculate appearance which is similar to that seen in retinitis pigmentosa. This eye had additional features of trauma As the salt of the earth as pepper can get, basically. With an almost raisin-like appearance akin to that of tellicherry peppercorns, the flavor is something very different than the usual ones associated with Asian pepper. What you're tasting here is an ancient tradition
Diorite is usually composed of sodium-rich plagioclase with lesser amounts of hornblende, biotite, and pyroxene minerals. It usually contains little if any quartz. This makes diorite a coarse-grained rock with a contrasting mix of black and white mineral grains. Students often use this salt and pepper appearance as a clue to the. T1WI Salt and pepper appearance: Salt appearance secondary to subacute hemorrhage. Pepper appearance due to flow voids. !!T2WI hyperintense with flow voids. !!Angiography: Prolonged, intense tumor blush between ICA and ECA. Main feeding branch is ascending pharyngeal artery, a branch of the ECA Can see crystals. Usually gray or pink. Can see quartz - gray, glassy grains. Can see feldspar - pink, buff, or white. dominately pyroxene : Can see crystals with somewhat more light colored feldspar grains than dark colored minerals. A mix of light and dark but with no quartz. Salt & pepper appearance. GABBRO: Can see crystals — lots o Bi-allelic RPE65 retinal dystrophy presents with severe visual impairment before age 1 and is associated with nystagmus, poor pupillary reflexes, normal or mildly abnormal fundus appearance, and profoundly abnormal or absent electroretinogram. 7-9 Phenotype varies from a normal fundus appearance to RPE granularity, vessel attenuation, macular.
Salt-and-pepper calvarium Salt-and-pepper calvarium describes the granular appearance of the skull in patients with hyperparathyroidism. This finding represents tiny spheres of trabecular bone resorption stimulated by the elevated levels of parathyroid hormone. 11 On radiographs of the skull, the speckled radiolucencies look like scattered. An interesting case was seen in our clinic, where an intranasal steroid injection affected the retina of the patient's right eye (OD) only. The fundus photo shows a cherry red spot in the macula (Fig. 36). The ERG response was diminished in size particularly following dim scotopic flashes (Fig. 37) While gray hair used to be something we all wanted to hide, it's now actually a major hair color trend.You can still pull off this hair color trend even if you're not going gray just yet. In particular, salt and pepper hair, which is a mix of gray, silver, and black hair, is totally of the moment for 2020-2021—not to mention universally attractive I didn't see them in the night or feel them biting me but have 13-14 welts all around my side, each welt has usually more than one bit make in each welt. one has 5 bite marks or like a white head. Eye floaters can happen to anyone as they age. However, other vision issues — like retinal tears or detachment — could be hereditary. If you have a family history of retinal detachment or tears, you might be at a higher risk of developing one in the future. Eye floaters and flashes are potential signs of retinal detachment or retinal tears
Aged 30, 5'7, fair complexion, brown moustache, salt-and-pepper coat, red neckerchief, grey peaked cloth cap. Sailor-like. James Blenkinsop Catharine Eddowes 1:30 A.M. Well-dressed. Mary Ann Cox Mary Kelly 11:45 P.M. Short, stout man, shabbily dressed. Billycock hat, blotchy face, carroty moustache, holding quart can of beer George Hutchinson. Sparkly combs and clips dress up any style. Polished hair slicked back from the face—Silver Fox to the max for holiday sophistication. The smoothly rolled bun is a classic good look for the holidays, with or without hair ornaments. Either worn high on the crown or as a chignon, this is a beautiful sophisticated look
Black pigment may be seen on the skin in white areas. No patch should be so large as it appears to be a blanket. Eligible but less desirable, are black hairs showing through the white base coat which gives a salt and pepper or dirty appearance. Mantle Color: Black and white with a black blanket extending over the body Figure 7 shows that a 9 x 9 median filter can remove some of the salt and pepper noise while retaining the edges of the image. Other Filters: Here are a few more filters that can be used for image pre-processing: Conservative Filter. The conservative filter is used to remove salt and pepper noise
Salt, also called sodium chloride, mineral substance of great importance to human and animal health, as well as to industry. The mineral form halite, or rock salt, is sometimes called common salt to distinguish it from a class of chemical compounds called salts. Learn more about salt in this article Lukhi Diamond The expression salt and pepper alludes to a diamond with a blend of numerous coal black and white incorporations, giving the stone a velvety dark and spotted look. Incorp.. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in. SALT & PEPPER The spines are white, banded with black. No more than 5% of the quills are to be solid white. The face is white with a black mask, ears and nose. The underbody hair is white Black mottling of the underbelly is extensive. Skin on the shoulders is jet-black. The nose is black. DARK GRE Level 1 (flat) A level 1 ground polish usually can be obtained by stopping below the100-grit resin bond. When you look directly down at the floor, it will appear somewhat hazy with little if any clarity or reflection. Level 2 (satin) A level 2 honed polish is obtained by stopping at the 400-grit resin bond, producing a low-sheen finish
sit below the salt. sit beneath the salt. take (something) with a grain of salt. take (something) with a pinch of salt. take something with a pinch of salt. take what (one) says with a pinch of salt. take with a pinch of salt. the salt of the earth. throw salt on (one's) game When a 'white w/o pressure' extends almost to the macula, so the intact retina appears red in comparison, but it is not a retinal hole Supporting users have an ad free experience! Twee Pheochromocytomas are most common in the fourth through sixth decades of life. Women and men are affected with similar frequency. Pheochromocytoma has been called the 10% tumor because approximately 10% are bilateral (Figs. 1A and 1B), 10% are malignant, 10% occur in children, and 10% are extraadrenal.The extraadrenal lesions are also referred to as paragangliomas  The minerals that are found in granite are primarily quartz, plagioclase feldspars, potassium or K-feldspars, hornblende and micas. Quartz is usually the last mineral to crystallize and fills in the extra space between the other minerals. Quartz's hardness, lack of chemical reactivity and near lack of cleavage give granite a significant amount of its desirable durable properties
This example shows how to remove salt and pepper noise from an image using an averaging filter and a median filter to allow comparison of the results. These two types of filtering both set the value of the output pixel to the average of the pixel values in the neighborhood around the corresponding input pixel This is the classic triad of retinal findings for this non active infection (POHS):, This is the retinal condition which affects 15-40% of immunocompromised AIDS patients, and can be treated with an intravitreal injection of ganciclovir:, This chorioretinal condition presents as a white-yellow retinal lesion, vitritis, a chorioretinal scar and is associated with infection from ingesting. Pineapple Chutney. 40 mins. Ratings. Rum Raisin Ice Cream. 45 mins. Ratings. The 3-2-1 Method for Perfect Barbecue Pork Ribs. Hawaiian Loco Moco Barbecue Recipe. 55 mins There are various descriptions of the appearance of this maculopathy including pigment epithelial mottling, atrophic lesions, bull's eye appearance, and peripheral salt-and-pepper [eyerounds.org] electrolytes, ammonia, blood gas, lactate, CBC, and urine ketones, plasma MMA, tHcy, and B12 levels, plasma amino acids, and acylcarnitine profile Red, cherry-like appearance of the vascular choroid under the macula on an otherwise lipid-laden, whitened retina, seen on fundoscopic exam in disorders of lipid metabolism such as Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff's disease and Sialidosis; can also be seen with other eye disorders including central retinal artery occlusion. Cottage-loaf sig
Median filtering is excellent at reducing this type of noise. The filtering algorithm will scan the entire image, using a small matrix (like the 3x3 depicted above), and recalculate the value of. Cohen syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects many parts of the body and is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, small head size (microcephaly), and weak muscle tone (hypotonia).Other features common in this condition include worsening nearsightedness (), breakdown (degeneration) of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retinal dystrophy), an. Management • Dilation (tropicamide 1% [Mydriacyl] with or without phenylephrine 2.5% [Mydfrin tid) may be used as a temporary measure before surgery to allow light to pass around the cataract; however, surgery should not be delayed. • If the cataract obscures the visual axis (media opacity > 3 mm) or is causing secondary ocular disease (glaucoma or uveitis), cataract extraction should be. Occasionally, it may be the sole cutaneous manifestation.Previous reports showed about 94% of the patients who were diagnosed with SSc had a salt-and-pepper appearance. According to the history, a 68-year-old man presented to the rheumatology clinic with a 5-year history of skin changes on his chest and back Ajay Devgn's photos that show the salt-pepper look turn viral; fans go gaga and call it 'dhakad Apr 15, 2021 - wigsbuy.com offers high quality Salt and Pepper Hairstyle Medium Bob Layered Straight Synthetic Wig 12 Inches with reasonable price